If two or more resistors or loads are connected one after the other in such a way that there is only one path of current flow, it is called a series circuit.

Characteristics of series circuits:-

(i) The same amount of current flows through all the loads or resistors connected in the series circuit. That is. 1+I2+I3+——–+In

(ii) The sum of the voltage drops of each register or load connected in a series circuit is equal to the voltage applied to the circuit. That is- V=V1+V2+V3+———+Vn

(iii) The sum of the resistors or loads connected in a series circuit is equal to the total resistance (of the circuit). That is R=R1+R2+R3+——–+Rn

What is a parallel circuit?

Multiple resistors or loads are connected across an electrical source in such a way that multiple paths of current flow exist but are called parallel circuits.

Characteristics of parallel circuits:-

(i) The voltage drop across the horizontal of each load or resistor connected in a parallel circuit is equal to the voltage applied to the circuit. That is – 1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+——–+1/Rn

(ii) Adding the value of each resistor connected in a parallel circuit upside down, the sum is equal to the inverse of the equivalent (circuit) resistance.